The use of a pairing procedure in conditioning vocalizations to evoke parroting and echoic responses to teach mands
Chanie Kessler, MS
Gina Feliciano, Ph.D.,BCBA
Jessica Rodriguez, MA,BCBA
Shema Kolainu-Hear our Voices
Yoon and Bennett (2000) and Miguel, Carr, and Michael (2002) used the stimulus-stimulus pairing procedure. Participants in both studies were preschoolers with language delays.
In both studies two or more of the participants demonstrated an increase in the rate of the target sound immediately after the pairing sessions.
The results showed that the vocal sounds eventually extinguished.
Esch, Carr, and Michael (2005) further evaluated the stimulus- stimulus pairing with three children with autism. The results pairing had no effect on increasing the rate of the target vocalizations.
Research in the last 10 years have reported inconsistent findings regarding the efficacy of pairing procedures in eliciting vocalizations for students with developmental disabilities and speech delays.
The current investigation stems from results presented in a poster last year
Pairing procedure led to an increase in echoics and mands
We wanted replicate the findings with participants whose vocal verbal behavior is not forthcoming.
4 participants initially: 2 PreK, 2 school age
All participants non vocal with limited speaker abilities
relied on gestures
PECS introduced for 3 of 4 participants.
None of the students had echoic repertoire ages range 4-7
Conducted in classroom 6:1:3
ABA/VB program in a borough of NYC.
Each student attended school for at least 1 yr-up to 3 years.
2 participants completed entire study
DV: Echoics to mand
IV: Pairing procedure (12 pairings per minute/5 min pairing)
Design: Pre-pairing-post pairing
Pre-training; 5-5 minute time samples to select target sounds
Selected 2-3 most frequently occurring sounds
Review of performance on previous echoic to mand training
VB procedures used school wide
3-5 correct echoics-opportunity to mand
Mastery criterion-10 consecutive correct mands
Presentation of preferred items every 5 seconds-for 5 minutes
Return to VB procedures
Completed for each target sound for each student
Conducted by second observer/experimenter
26-32% of sessions,
31% of sessions
Pairing procedures were successful for 1 of the 4 participants.
S has mastered to criterion during the post mand training the target sounds “ga”, “ba”, and “mm”.
S has continued to use the target sounds effectively throughout his school day to mand.
3 other students showed little results using the pairing procedure. There was no increase in the number of target vocalizations.
There are prerequisites that are required to be part of the students’ repertoires in order for the pairing procedure to be effective. We theorize that listener skills may be the determinant if pairing procedures can be successful.
A previous study was done; listener repertoires seems comparable to S.
Pairing procedures was successful in teaching Participant to use the target sounds ga, ah, ee, mm, go, gi, ye, and oo during mand training
More research is needed to evaluate the prerequisites crucial for stimulus-stimulus pairing procedures to be successful.
Esch, B. E., Carr, J. E., & Michael, J. (2005). Evaluating stimulus-stimulus pairing and direct reinforcement in the establishment of an echoic repertoire of children diagnosed with autism. The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 21, 43-58
Miguel, C.F. ,Carr, J.E. & Michael, J. (2001/2002). The effects of a stimulus-stimulus pairing procedure on the vocal behavior of children diagnosed with autism. The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 18, 3-13
Smith, R., Michael, J., & Sundberg, M. L. (1996). Automatic reinforcement and automatic punishment in infant vocal behavior. The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 13, 39-48.
Sundberg, M. L., Michael, J., Partington, J. W., & Sundberg, C. A. (1996). The role of automatic reinforcement in early language acquisition. The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 13, 21-37.
Yoon, S & Bennett, G.M. (in press). Effects of a stimulus-stimulus pairing procedure on conditioning vocal sounds as reinforcers. The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, XX, xx-xx.
Contact us at: Gfeliciano@skhov.org
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